Thursday, October 10, 2019
Human sexuality Essay
She was barely eight years old when together with seven of her age mates ,she was handed over to a traditional circumciser who took them through the painful process of FGM. it has been many years since ,and she has accomplished so much in life, but the incident remains fresh in her mind. The old woman who took them through the process was going blind, she says, and three of the eight who underwent the procedure died due to excessive bleeding. One of them was her very close friend. Luckily for her, the bleeding was not too much and she had a savior at hand. Her father, who was a policeman, took her to a hospital in Garissa using a police land rover. This was the traumatizing experience that nominated Member of Parliament, Sophia Abdi Noor went through when her mother blessed her to undergo the rite of passage that would cleanse her and make her acceptable for marriage according to tradition. Never before in history of the august house had a member used her own life experience to move debate as Ms.Ã Sophia did when supporting the bill to outlaw female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation is the term used for operations or removal of all or just part of the external parts of female genitilia. This practice has for a long time come under increasingly intense international scrutiny from the news media, feminist and human rights organizations. The main reasons for continuation of FGM are firstly, as a rite of passage from girlhood to womanhood; a circumcised woman is considered mature, obedient and aware of her role in the family and society. Secondly, FGM is perpetuated as a means of reducing sexual desire of girls and women, thereby curbing sexual activity before and ensuring fidelity within marriage. Although opposition to female Ã¢â¬ËcircumcisionÃ¢â¬â¢ has been articulated throughout the twentieth century, starting with missionaries and colonial administrators, the current resurgence of indignation was ignited in part by activists at conferences honoring the United Nations Decade for women(1975-1985). (Shell-Duncan. B,Hernland-Y;pg 23) The practice of circumcising women has very deep roots that touch all aspects of the cultures that continue to inflict it upon their girls. However,it still remains to be a practice that violates the human rights of affected women in a moral and ethical sense because it generates psychological torture, low self-esteem, tampers with a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality and is a health hazard. Psychological torture The pain inflicted by F. G. M does not stop with the initial procedure, but often continues as an ongoing torture throughout a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Intense pain and hemorrhage experienced during the procedure can lead to shock. A 1985 Kenyan study found that nearly 97% of the 269 women interviewed experienced intense pain during and after F. G.Ã M and more than 13% went into shock. According to WHO, It is self-evident that any form of surgical interference in the highly sensitive genital organs constitutes a serious threat to the woman, and that the painful operation is a source of major physical as well as psychological trauma. The extent and nature of the immediate and long-term mental disturbances will depend on the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s inner defences, the prevailing psychological environment, and a host of other factors. The family no doubt does its best to mitigate the painful effects of the operation; nonetheless, they necessarily undergo overwhelming experiences. Even before the operation, the threat of Ã¢â¬ËcuttingÃ¢â¬â¢ and fear provoking situation may disturb the mental state of the child to the degree that it causes worry, anxiety, sleeplessness, nightmares or panic. As anticipating precautions against these anxieties the family commonly uses various forms of traditional magi co-religious practice such as fumigation, or the wearing of amulets. On a religious perspective, the scripture prescribes that special efforts be made to care for those who are most vulnerable. (Deut 10:17-19,Ps 82:3,4; Ps24:11,12;Luke 1:52-54) Jesus taught that children should be loved and protected. Therefore,the genital mutilation of young girls violates the biblical mandate to safeguard children and protect them from harm and abuse Tampers with a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality. Sexual intercourse can only take place after opening the infibulation, through surgery or penetrative sexual intercourse. Consequently, intercourse is frequently painful during the first weeks after initiation. Although it is difficult to verify reports or womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual experiences, physical complications from FGM often impede sexual enjoyment. FGM destroys much or all of the vulva nerve endings, delaying arousal or impairing orgasm. Lacerations loss of skin elasticity, or development of neuron (a tumor or mass growing from a nerve) can lead to painful intercourse. In a 1993 Kenyan study, 5% of women interviewed experienced painful intercourse while 9. 3% of them reported having difficult or impossible penetration, and that many of the married ones only accepted it only as a duty. Scripture celebrates the divinely ordained gift of sexual intimacy within marriage (Eccl9. 9;Prov 5:18,19). The practice of female genital mutilation should be renounced because it threatens the creatorÃ¢â¬â¢s design for the experience of joyful sexuality by married couples. For married couples, the gift of sexual union may be further blessed by the birth of children (Prov 31:28). The fact that successful childbirth is threatened by FGM is additional grounds for opposition to this practice. Health hazard. In October 1994, as a response to the call to Global Action,UNICEF issued an executive directive declaring that FGM is a health hazard to children and violation of their human rights. FGM in any form should not be practiced by health professionals in any setting including hospitals or other health establishments. Unnecessary oddly mutilation cannot be condoned by health providers. FGM is harmful to the health of women and girls and violates their basic human rights and medicalization of the procedure does not eliminate this harm. On the contrary, it reinforces the continuation of the practice by seeming to legitimize it. Health practitioners should provide all necessary care and counseling for complications that may arise as a result. Group circumcision, where the same unsterilized instrument is used on several girls at a time, repeat cutting and stitching increases risk of HIV infection. The Bible presents the goodness of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s creation, including the creation of human beings (Gen 1:31; Ps 139:13, 14). God is the source and sustainer of human life (Job 33:4; john 1:3, 4). He calls for preservation of human life and holds humanity accountable for its destruction(Gen 9:5,6;Ex20:13,Jer 7:3-34). The human body is the Ã¢â¬Å"the temple of the Holy Spirit,Ã¢â¬ and followers of God are urged to care for and preserve their bodies, including the CreatorÃ¢â¬â¢s gift of sexuality, as a spiritual responsibility (1cor6:15-19). Because FGM is harmful to health, threatening to life, and injurious to sexual function, it is incompatible with the will of God. Having discussed the side effects that FGM pauses to victims, various communities have come up with measures to fight this procedure, an alternative rite of passage in the abandonment of FGM is used. It involves a four-step procedure Preparation Seminars for both parents and initiates are encouraged. The topics will include side effects of female circumcision, and get prepared to attend a residential seminar to elaborate on what the alternative procedure entails. Actual Circumcision In the alternative Rite of passage, actual circumcision should be stopped since we have learnt that it is not necessary to make a woman an adult nor mature. The side effects of F. C both short and long terms are to be avoided if actual circumcision is not performed. Parents can select a teacher and trainer, for their daughter who will accompany her to the residential centre for an alternative rite of passage seminar. Seclusion. For this the girls will attend a residential seminar for one week away from home. The initiate will be accompanied with their teacher and trainer. Women both circumcised and un circumcised from the community will facilitate during the seminar. Additional topics-AIDS, STIÃ¢â¬â¢s, simple hygiene and great women in the Bible, in community and in Kenya. Rites and rituals will be optional. Girls of circumcision age are between six and twelve years old. For the purpose of effective learning, the girls will be divided into two groups; girls between six and nine, ten and twelve. Graduation Graduation is expected to be brief and colourful. Songs, drama, plays and poems will be encouraged. Parents, community leaders, politicians and government officials will be invited to attend to witness the graduation of whole girls. Certificates of graduation will be awarded and prayers, blessings conducted. Exchange of gifts for newly graduated girls will be carried out and finally the graduates will be handed over to the community,chief,church elders and clan elders. Since itÃ¢â¬â¢s an annual event, committees are to b e established to plan for the following year.